The problem of GMOs has become very popular nowadays. If you turn on the TV or open any page on the Internet, you will come across the information devoted to the harm of genetically modified organisms. Why are people concerned about this issue? Are GMOs dangerous to our life and health? Are there any positive sides of genetically modified organisms? These questions are quite relevant. More and more food products genetically engineered, and people worry about the impact of this modification on their health. What is a genetically modified organism? It is any organism whose genotype changed by the methods and techniques of genetic engineering. Such experiments conducted for scientific and agricultural purposes. Genetic modification differs from the natural or artificial mutagenesis. Genetic material is transported from one organism to another applying the technology of recombinant DNA. If DNA carried to the target organism from another species, the target body is called a transgenic one.
Genetic engineering is a relatively new science. With the invention of powerful microscopy and development of medicine, scientists have become interested in the possibility of the creation of the completely new species of animals and plants. When they managed to extract DNA from an organism, the new era of science began. The idea of genetic engineering is very fascinating. Every organism (bacteria, animals, plants, fungi, etc.) has its particular qualities determined by its lifestyle and the peculiarities of the environment it lives. Therefore, every organism has its strengths and weaknesses. Some plants resist extremely low and high temperatures. Others are less vulnerable to diseases and poisons. Some species possess the quality of rapid regeneration and restoration. When scientists learned about these facts, they decided to cross DNA of different organisms to receive an entirely new stronger one.
It is reasonable to introduce GMOs in agriculture. Our planet becomes more and more populated. Overpopulation has already become the most urgent problem in many countries of Asia and Latin America. Feeding everyone is tough. Thus, the problems of hunger and poverty are very disturbing nowadays. The most logical solution is to grow more crops to feed hungry people.
However, it is impossible to produce so much food naturally. Everybody knows that we live in the exciting time associated with the climatic change. In some areas, it has become impossible to grow crops though twenty years ago this region was perfect for it. The global field of agriculture cannot retrain rapidly. People have to learn about the new cultures that can be grown on their territory since it is the only way out. In fact, it is possible to make the old cultures stronger and more resistant to the environmental changes. Genetic engineering can do that.
We know that corn has already become the most common genetically modified culture. The USA produces much corn in spite of heat and hurricanes and other climatic threats. This culture is robust enough to resist everything. It is possible to improve other vegetables and fruit to make them grow faster or delay the time of their spoilage.
People react to agricultural GMOs calmly, but they still protest against such experiments on animals. They are afraid of consuming pork, beef or lamb of the genetically modified animals. Scientists have already conducted numerous experiments on fish, sheep and smaller animals and microorganisms.
The contribution of GMOs into medicine is not overestimated. The first organisms that were genetically modified are bacteria. They are intensively used in the creation of remedies. For instance, it is possible to produce a human protein that can be used for the treatment of diabetes or hemophilia. Many bacteria are used for the production of human insulin. Receiving all the required proteins from bacteria is impossible. Scientists had to invent something more radical, and they started modifying domestic animals and using their milk for the production of the required proteins.
I dare say that the general public opinion of GMOs is mostly negative. There is a substantial movement against GMOs in many countries. People believe that consumption of such organisms can cause numerous dangerous diseases like cancer and others. Also, they say that genetically modified food products are deprived of vitamins and natural taste.
In spite of numerous negative points of view about GMOs, their importance is enormous. Genetic modification helps scientists create resistible cultures and defeat the problem of hunger in the world.