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Corporal Punishment Research Paper

Abstract
The decision on the mode of punishment that a parent should use is usually a preserve of the parents. For instance, whenever the parents feel that the child should be punished by the use of the corporal punishment, they are usually at liberty to carry out the punishment by their appointed mode. The use of the punishment, however, gets to be hindered by the legal aspects that seek to protect the child from mistreatment. The law is not clear on the extent after which the corporal punishment changes into a mistreatment crime. However, even in the countries where the mode of punishment is laudable, the effectiveness of this approach of instilling discipline is jittery since the results are often counterproductive (Merriam-webster.com 2012). In most of the situations, the mode is beneficial, but the effects of the approach have far reached ramifications. There are no exact directions among the lay or the professionals concerning the use of this approach. There are divergent approaches that the paper will use to come up with a conclusive explanation of the benefits and the harms that the mode of approach brings to the child and to a great extent the family relations. The paper will answer the questions surrounding the issue of the relevance and the effectiveness of this mode of punishment.

Introduction
Spanking gets to be draw a lot of interest from the people that deal with children whether it is in their education or the care of the children. This interest group includes the parents and teachers. There is another profession to which the spanking issues are of concern. This group of people is the one that deal with families and children. The group includes; doctors social workers and psychologists. Beating or hitting of any sort gets to be intertwined with the religion, culture legal stipulations and the social policy of a society. The use of any form of beating on a child has invariably immense effects on the mental and psychological development of the child. The UN argues against all forms of physical punishment on the children. In the United States, there are many organizations that lobby against the use of corporal punishment. Corporal punishment as am mode of punishing children whether at home or in school got to be banned in most of the nations. The paper will outline the various arguments that the interest groups use in gauging the effectiveness of the mode of punishment (Plan-international.org n.d). The paper will also include the arguments that they make against the use of punishment and the alternatives given. The paper also contains the personal inferences of the writer in the issue of the corporal punishment. However, the paper still seeks to maintain the objectivity of the researches conducted by professionals on the topic of corporal punishment.

Despite the various actions by the activists groups concerning hitting, the corporal punishment is still prevalent in the USA, and to a greater extent in the nations that it gets to be banned. For instance, over seventy per cent of the guardian of children under the age of 17 years admitting to have used hitting as a mode of instilling discipline in their children. In order for the paper, to come up with the best basis of the spanking as the mode of disciplining children it is critical for the writer to come up with the accurate definition of spanking. The conventional definition of spanking is the use of an open hand to hit a child or in the extreme the use of belt and paddles in the place of hand with the intention of instilling discipline and not to leave any bruise or cause physical harm to the child. The definition seeks to draw a line between the severe modes of corporal punishment and spanking. The definition of physical abuse differs from the one for corporal punishment in that the mode involves the use of objects and has an intention of causing bodily harm to the child. The reports made by the research indicate that a big number of the parents use objects such as belts to cause bodily harm during the punishment. On this premise, most of the professionals would like to argue that the moves of the parents lead to abuse. The research concerning the hitting varies widely in the definition of the extent to which the parent abuse their children physical in the name of corporal punishment.

There are three different views that get to be held by the public and the professionals concerning the use of corporal punishment including spanking. The first group is the pro corporal punishment (Japantimes.co.jp 1995). This view does not get the usual avocation in the press and the academic writings, however, the view as present and live in the community. The view gets support from the cryptic and rather misconstrued version of the bible that advocates for the use of the corporal punishment. The proponents of the view feel that this is a direct imploration from the bible. Therefore, the believers agree that the use of the rod is as natural as the religion advocates. They make an inconsistent link between the corporal punishment and aspects of good parenting. The other vie in this debate ids the anti-corporal punishment. According to this view, the use of this approach has the potential of leading to the development of deleterious consequences. The epitome of this school of thought it that the use of violence is meet likely bound to lead to the development of violence. The school of thought focuses on the aspects of social learning as the ways in which violence in the society gets to be transmitted in the community from one age group to the other. The school of thought also looks at the morality issues surrounding the infliction of aim to another person. The anti-corporal punishment crusaders feel that the use of the mode of punishment is immoral since it violates the humane standard. The other view on corporal punishment is the conditional view. The school of thought is in the middle ground between the previous ones. The belief of view is that the use of corporal punishment is a situation dependent variable. It assumes that the impacts of the use of corporal penalty are dependent on the conditions surrounding the application of the mode. The view is that spanking can be variable depending on the multiple dimensions that are in use. The view is not outright support for the use of spanking and other modes of corporal punishment per se. On the other hand, the view is that the use of corporal punishment or the banning of use is dependent on some conditions. Therefore, corporal punishment does not have the application of a blanket statement concerning the application or the banning.

Review of the Research
The research conducted on this topic has led to the findings that there is a connection between the outcome of the child rearing and the use of this mode of punishment in the upbringing of the child. There is a strong correlation between the use of the mode of punishment and the development of undesirable traits in child (Endcorporalpunishment.org 2001). The children that have this mode of punishment as they grow tend to display some uncouth social behaviors (Chung et al 2009). In one of the findings, the children have a tendency of being violent towards the others this lead to the assertion of the use of violence leading to violence. There was also a relationship between the use of the mode of punishment and the development of criminal tendencies in children after their formative years. The other critical correlation between the use of the mode and the outcome is the tendency of strained interactions between the parents and the kids after during and after the use of the ode of punishment gets done. These strained relationships spill into the adulthood leading to coexistence between the child and the parent. In the extreme case, the research found out that the use of corporal punishment on the children leads to the formation of mental health complications. Some of the children that the parents used corporal punishment at some point in their life ended up getting aggression attacks. This is an evidence e of the detriments of the corporal punishment. The only positive outcome of the research is that the children end up developing a compliant attitude. The use of spanking as a corporal punishment is a common denominator in the development of abusive behavior in the future as well as a common factor in the people that are open to abuses in their relationships.

There are concomitant effects of punishment. These effects include any result from the mode of punishment adopted by the parent that is outside the immediate focus of the punishment. They include the development of behaviors that can be termed as pro social and any other behavior rather than the one that got to be targeted by the punishment (Gershoff, 2002). They also involve the emotional reactions to the punishment such as crying and development of anger and resentment. This research also agrees to a different one conducted on the animals. The animals displayed avoidance towards the people that trained them and increased aggression in this group of people. The same tendencies are likely in the corporal punishment though they also occur in the non-corporal punishment approaches albeit on a low scale. There are few researches conducted making a comparison between the developments in the non-committing effects in the scenarios when the mode of punishment applied is different from corporal punishment, and it is equally effective.

Impact on Development
Child abuse, which is a more severe form of corporal punishment, leads to some adverse effects in the development of the child. The main changes connected to the physiological and physical growth including the reduction in functionality of the brain. Corporal punishment can lead to the exertion of bio-chemical reactions in the brain that has an effect on the working of the brain. Such changes include changes in the volume of the brain (Infidels.org 1891). They may also include the increased or decreased reactivity to different neuron transmitters. The use of spanking may also lead to the development of psychological concomitants. The use of spanking does not get to be supported by the evidence that it has the same effects to the child abuse that leads to the mentioned results. However, it is not clear at what point the brain makes a distinction between child abuse and spanking to lead to the development of the results.

The other areas of the psychology of a child that get affected by this are attachment, regulations of the emotions stress and child parent relationships. These areas make a reflection of the importance of the brain, behavior and interaction (Apa.org 2002). Mild corporal punishment has gotten to be indicated to have absolute effects that are not dangerous to the development of a child. This paper does not challenge this stand. However, the paper looks at how the use of spanking as a mode of corporal punishment has an influence in factors that affect the development of a child in a critical manner. As it has been pointed out, the use of harsh punishment is a main driver to the development of certain mental processes.

Effects and Moderators
The main effects of the discipline practice by the parents gets to be moderated by the variables that get to be related to the child, parenting, and family and to a great extent the culture. Advances made in the molecular genetics are likely to bring out the relationship between parents and children in a broader way than before (Larzelere & Baumrind 2002). For instance, the boys that have undergone mistreatment get to be bound to from a certain behavior that is antisocial depending on whether they have a certain gene linked to a certain behavior. The research conducted is not adequate in determining the influences of moderate spanking though the ones in existence have not gone through the adequate systems of testing and verifying (Apa.org 1975). Therefore, the paper cannot come to a conclusion about the matter. The issue of moderate spanking as a mode of corporal punishment poses some difficulties. Some of the studies may implicitly endorse the use of spanking as a good approach. In the least possible outcome, the research may recommend that spanking is good for other families while being bad for the others. In other instances, the research may unwittingly lay blame on the child for developing some form of a reaction to the use of a corporal punishment. This makes the study of the moderator comments to be charged since some of the research concludes that the use of spanking in moderation is advisable in some families while in others it is not. This leads to a complication in the question raised on whether spanking gets needed at all in the rearing of a child.

Closing Comments
The opposition of the corporal punishment gets to be made on the moral legal acceptance and the humanitarian grounds. On the moral grounds, they cite that the use of corporal punishment leads to the development of an unfair treatment of the people since the punishment includes the infliction of pain (Baumrind et al 2002). On the humane grounds, the corporal punishment is a violation of the humanity values. On the legal grounds, the corporal punishment gets a challenge from the fact that the treatment of adults and children is different under the law, is different. The law requires the adults not to inflict pain upon each other while the adults get to be seemingly permitted to do it as long as the recipient of the pain is a child. Research indicates that the use of corporal punishment on a frequent basis is a cause of development of the undesirable mental, psychological, social and physical results. The results of the effects of mild use of corporal punishment lack in the verifiability and the evidence reliability. On the other end, it is critical for the parents to avoid the use of spanking as a mode of punishment since there are alternative forms of instilling discipline that are no aversive (Corporal Punishment in Schools n.d). Since there is no determined way of deciding the extent to which mild use of corporal punishment is proper, it is better to avoid it. This way, the parents are certain that the use of the punishment modes that they adopt will not lead to the development of undesirable traits in the children. In addition to this, instance of mild spanking may escalate to the use of more force since in most of the time, the spanking occurs while the objectivity of the parent gets clouded by the emotions. In this instance, the aim of mild corporal punishment has gotten to be side stepped since what the parent is trying to avoid gets to be done. The best mode of approaching the punishment of children should encompass the use of other methods that are prone to produce the same results as corporal results. These methods also do not lead to the development of the consequences that have far reached ramifications.

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